AGFUND INTERNATIONAL PRIZE FOR PIONEERING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
For projects by government agencies.
Governmental efforts in adoption of pioneering programs, polices and best practices to achieve food security for the poor.
The Winning Project:
Village Food Resilience Program – Indonesia (Selected winner from 3 projects).
The National Agency for Food Security- Indonesia
FAO – United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
The achievement of food security is not only serves as an obligation, morally, socially and legally (including the fulfillment of human rights), but also as an investment in the establishment of qualified human resources for the future. It is being realized that the achievement of food security is a prerequisite for the fulfillment of other basic rights, including education, employment, etc. The definition of food security according Law No. 7/1996 on Food is the state where all people have physical and economical access to food in order to fulfill their needs for appropriate nutrition for productive and healthy daily life, which is indicated by the sufficient availability of food, both in quantity, quality, and accessibility.
Therefore, in strengthening national food security, General Food Security Strategy has been implemented through Twin-Track Approach, namely:
Emphasizing agriculture-based and village-based economic development with the target of regional economic growth, creating job opportunity and increasing community income; and
Providing food for the poor and undernourished people through food provision and community empowerment.
Several approaches that are being carried out by the agency consist of (a) Strengthening food supply by optimizing available resources in a sustainable manner; b) Improving food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access to food; (c) Encouraging diversified food production and consumption; and (d) Preventing and resolving food insecurity.
Overview of The Implementing Agency
The implementing agency for this project is The Agency for Food Security. This agency was established in 2000 under the name of Badan Bimas Ketahanan Pangan, and in its development the agency transform into The Agency for Food Security (Badan Ketahanan Pangan/BKP). The country of origin of this project is The Republic of Indonesia.
The Agency for Food Security set its vision “to be a reliable, aspirative, and innovative institution in strengthening food security”. To realize this vision, the Agency for Food Security establish a mission among others: (a) improve policy formulation assessment as well as the development and monitoring activities on food security, (b) development of food security at households, district, and national levels; (c) institutional building on food security at district level, and (d) improve coordination to formulate policies on food security, as well as monitoring and evaluation activities.
The Agency for Food Security (BKP) organizational structure, consists of four units of echelon-2 consists of the Secretariat, the Center of Food Availability and Vulnerability, the Centre of Food Distribution and Reserve, and the Center of Food Diversification Consumption and Food Safety. BKP also serves as the Secretariat for Food Security Council (Dewan Ketahanan Pangan).
Considering that BKP did not have technical implementation unit (UPT) at provincial and district / city level, the functional coordination is being occupied by BKP or the task force of food security at the provinces and districts. Similarly, coordination by DKP is done with provincial and district level.
As with any other first-echelon units, BKP implement three main programs of the Department of Agriculture, consist of Food Security, Agricultural Development and Farmer Welfare Improvement. Through these three programs, BKP had developed a variety of activities, including the Village Food Resilience Program. To carry out the duties and functions, the National Food Security Agency on 2012 managed the state budget amounted USD 763, 28 billion, and over 85% was allocated to provinces and regencies / cities in the form of deconcentration of assistance task (Dana Dekonsentrasi/DK).
Overview of Village Food Resilience Program (Demapan)
Village Food Resilience Program (Demapan) is an effort to empower people’s lives so that they are able to take advantage of the abundance of local resources / local (natural resource, human resource, technology resource, social culture and economy resources) to achieve food security. The approaches used are as follows: (1) empowerment (self-help), (2) a participatory, inclusive, synergistic, (3) optimization of local resources with a market perspective. This work is done by empowering people in food insecure areas in order to be able to escape from the cycle of poverty so as to enhance society’s ability to produce food, food from the market access and increase the purchasing power (independent of food).
Demapan activity component are: (1) strengthening and empowering group of farmers (Poktan), Group of society (Pokmas) and Village Food Team (Tim Pangan Desa), (2) optimization of the utilization of local natural resources, (3) development of appropriate agricultural and non agricultural local potential to produce food and generate income (purchasing power); (4) application of appropriate technology as needed, (5) the movement to save money in the community, (6) assistance, and (7) provision of social assistance fund for business Rp. 100 million.
Demapan has been implemented since 2006 with duration of coaching for four years to implement the four stages of development of the preparation, growth, development and independence. The goal of Demapan is the reduction of food insecurity and nutrition at the household level to achieve food security and nutrition of the rural communities.
Demapan is a continuation of the activities of Food Independence Movement, which in essence is an extension of the process of community empowerment for food security by encouraging the role of Local Government and the larger society. This movement is expected to continue to build food self-sufficiency through community empowerment approach to optimizing the utilization of local resources.
Objectives,Goals Beneficiaries and Indicators of Successful Village Food Resilience Program (Demapan)
The objectives are :
To accelerate the level of food self-sufficiency, especially the food-insecure communities, fostering productive efforts, the handling of food reserves and food processing as well as empowerment and community assistance in specific locations,
To increase the empowerment of the poor rural community in managing and utilizing the resources owned or controlled in an optimal way to achieve food self-sufficiency in the household and community.
The ultimate goals of Demapan at the poor households in rural food insecure are to achieve the resilience and the state of food security at communities. Whereas the specific goals of the project are :
Increasing the independence of the community;
Increasing the role and function of village community institutions;
Develop rural food security system;
Increasing people’s income,
Increase public accessibility.
In determining the location of the target villages and poor households, the data are based on Food insecurity results Atlas (FIA) 2005, Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA) 2009 and the listing of Household Basic Data (DDRT)
D. Successful Indicator
The formation of affinity groups;
Establishment of Village Financial Institutions (LKD);
The distribution of social assistance funds (Bansos) for productive activities.
The formation of the productive enterprises;
The role of capital institutions;
Increased productive enterprises;
Rising incomes, purchasing power, and access to community food
The realization of food security and nutrition community
Demapan has constucted and conducted planning activities in several stages, started from community groups, village, district, provincial to national government.
Planning in the group, is participatory, involving all members of the co-facilitated the group, to develop and strengthen the business development group into the Group Action Plan (RKK).
Planning in the village, the village head that had been developed to integrate programs in villages in the Village Development Planning Meeting (Musrenbangdes), which involves: community, TPD, companion, and community leaders in a participatory manner.
Planning in the District, with the Head Coordinator to coordinate with Companion / instructor of local villages, TPD, LKD, KCD, POPT, Team Coordinator of PKK and the District of BPP in the District by integrating the results of Musrenbangdes.
Planning at District / City, Regent / Mayor as Chairman of the DKP Regency / City, coordinating the implementation of programs / activities sub-sector and cross sector by integrating the results of village-level planning Musrenbang delivered in the District.
Planning in the province, the Provincial Governor as Chairman of the DKP, coordinate the implementation of programs / activities sub-sector and cross sector by integrating the results of the planning district.
Planning at the Centre, Ministry of Agriculture as Chief Executive of the Ministry, to coordinate the implementation of programs / activities sub-sector and cross sector by integrating the planning of the province. Planning of programs / activities carried out by the center, intended for the development of food security and reduce poverty in vulnerable areas of food.
AGFUND PRIZE EVALUATORS’ COMMENTS:
Prof. Izuka john
Targeted Impact: Equivocal, non-categorical or non-definitive statement on the number (about 3,000 villages out of 77,000) being reached right now. This statement casts doubts on the work performance outreach.
However, the report on monitoring and evaluation cleared all the doubts with definitive analysis and step by step professional reportage of figures and outcomes using tables and graphs and exact numbers translated into percentages which are statistical measures of central tendencies.
Mr. Huseyin POLAT
1. With regard to meeting the AGFUND mission, values and objectives, the project Village Food Resilience (VFR) can be considered to be an ideal one and a successful example (best practice) to be replicated elsewhere.. At the national level, the Agency for Food Security intends to improve policy formulation on food security. At the project (village) level, a Twin-Track Approach is taken to implement the policy by a) Emphasizing agriculture-based and village-based economic development with job creation and income generating; b) Providing food for the poor and undernourished people through food provision and community empowerment. To reach its objectives the project uses innovative approaches at village level also such as selection of core villages and deciding how to replicate the approach in other 3 villages using the field school method by extension workers (Affinity Groups)/Village Food Team and Village Financial Institutions. To sustain the village food resources, the project established Productive Business Capital (PMUK) for each village with a sum of 100 Million Rupiah to be managed by the Village Finance Institution (LKD). The fund turns into a revolving loan fund managed by the affinity groups in villages which makes the village independent in managing their food and nutrition affairs. In addition, the project established Social Assistance Fund (Bonsos) which is used for the development of productive enterprises in agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries and food processing.
2. As pointed out by the project independent evaluation report, the project design seems to be well-formulated taking into account the efficient and effective project management requirements as well as considering the fulfillment of project objectives, satisfying the needs of the target beneficiaries.
3. It can be said that the degree of relevance of project objectives to the theme of the AGFUND Prize is 90 per cent. The principal objective of the project was to enhance food and nutrition security at community level, reducing food and nutrition vulnerability, and optimize the use of local resources and indigenous traditions and knowledge through empowerment of the poor rural community in managing and utilizing the resources to achieve food self-sufficiency. For the purpose of sustainability, it is important to support local traditions (in food production) and local knowledge, and the project pays attention to this fact.
4. Project impact can be measured according to the results. The evaluation report covering the activities undertaken between 2006 and 2011, highlights that the village food resilience project implemented in 2,851 villages (111,8 % of planned number of villages) and 825 villages (98,8 %) achieved self-sufficiency in food. Number of poor families benefited was 898,250 (target was 255,000). According to the comparative evaluation, the impact of the project on poverty alleviation was 72,2 %, on community empowerment was 69,4 % accessibility of local facilities was 76%. With these figures and ratios, one can say that the impact of the project was quiet satisfactory.
5. It is not very clear whether or to what extent the target beneficiaries participated in the initial project design process. Although the implementing agency responded “yes” to this question, but the explanation followed this “yes” was about the participation of the beneficiaries in the implementation of the project. However, it can be said that the project targeted the most suitable beneficiaries and succeeded to attract them for the benefits and services of the project. In selecting and establishing type of production-related rural enterprises, the beneficiaries’ decisions were followed by the project team. This makes these initiatives sustainable.
6. It is an in-built mechanism of the project that the scheme should be replicated in at least three villages. The number of villages the project activities replicated was 2,708 (out of the total of 3,414 villages). It is therefore safe to say that the project can be transferred, replicated and adapted elsewhere without any difficulty.
7. About project management, it should be pointed out that indicators, outputs and activities were followed as basic elements of the logical framework of a project document. Activity planning was made for every level from village to national levels. On the financial management side, the budget of the National Agency for Food Security is decentralized at the provincial level. At village level, each village is given 100 Million Rupiah (10,000 USD) to be managed by the Village Financial Institutions. Accountability of the project management is guaranteed by three national regulatory arrangements. It is indicated in the evaluation report that the capital channeled to affinity groups in the form of social assistance until 2011 was 214,6 billion Rps, and the capital managed by the Village Fin. Institutions was 257,6 billion Rps. With this allocation, 2235 agricultural businesses, 510 processing businesses and 955 non-farm businesses were financed (on a revolving fund and rotating basis).
8. Fulfillment of project objectives was found highly satisfactory. As mentioned above, the project achieved its targets by covering 2,851 villages until the end of 2011, and in 2012, 563 additional villages were included and the total number of villages covered increased to 3,414 villages. The evaluation report highlighted that the Food Resilience Program achieved its objectives, the number of villages that achieved food self-sufficiency was 825 which was 99,87 per cent of the target until the end of 2011. Other indicators on poverty alleviation, infrastructure development and community empowerment also demonstrate successful implementation and high-degree of achievement of the project objectives.
9. Sustainability is one of the most successful points of the project to be highlighted. The project, as pointed out by one of the nominators, incorporates a sustainability strategy which is also called “exit strategy”. The project was implemented in four phases including preparation phase, growth phase, development phase and phasing out (handing-over) phase. During this phasing out period, the project turned the affinity groups into sustainable self-help (co-op) groups to continue productive businesses and achieve food security. Food Village Team structured as an embryo of the village food security coordination body. Finally, Village Financial Institutions started functioning as revolving funds to finance the village-owned enterprises. During the growth phase, construction of food reserves is also a good sign of long-term planning and sustainability. It can therefore be assumed that all these arrangements make the project achievements sustainable.
10. There is no indication about the environmental impact of the project. This is the only weak point to be mentioned. As regards its social impact, community empowerment, poverty alleviation, rural infrastructure development and networking between production, marketing and consumption have added value and should be mentioned as important social impact of the project.
Prof. Tuntufye Selemani
Village Food Resilience Program also referred to as Desa Mandiri Pangan is a special program jointly administered by the Indonesia government under the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with United Nations Organizations, such as FAO, for the purposes of combating hunger, poverty, malnutrition and children vulnerability in the Republic of Indonesia. Given its success and prosperity in bringing about relief and food security to the people of Indonesia is referred to as the flagship program of the Agency for Food security in the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture.
At one stage of the Project in 180 districts, it addressed food security problems in 608 villages. Rice being the staple food in Indonesia, the Sector is partly responsible for creating job opportunities for some of the 40 million labor force, 10% of whom are directly involved in the growing of rice. Since 2006, Desa Mandiri Pangan has reached as many as 3,000 villages out of a total of 77,000 villages in Indonesia, with a budget of 17 million USD per annum. Such success is evaluated as making major strides in food security, both at the local levels and serves as a model for other countries in Asia and other developing countries around the world.
In its present submission, the Village Food Resilience Program aims at achieving the following objectives, to mention only several of them: 1) Accelerate the level of food security self-sufficiency; 2) Increase empowerment of the poor rural community; the control of their nature-given resources for food security purposes and economic development; 3) Increase the level of independence in self-sufficiency.
Innovative ways with which the project relates to AGFUND mission, values and objectives:
As clearly stated in the Project Prize, there are many innovative ways such as: empowering the community, particularly the poor and those who are food-vulnerable in availability of food and malnutrition; communities become self-sufficient and less dependent on government capital and foreign aid; the growth of community institutions such as Village Food Team and Village Financial Institutions, and capacity building.
Contribution of project design to efficient and effective management and to the fulfillment of project objectives:
These may be identified as: Determination of targeted groups based on the results of baseline of households leading to data validity; Development of relevant local government and stakeholders, Village Food Team and affinity group, as well as the process of implementation pursued, expenditure of funds, and scientific evaluation of the Projects at large..
Degree of relevance of project objectives to the theme of the Prize:
To the extent that AGFUND aims at alleviation of poverty in poor countries, with a focus on examining various factors that militate against development, namely improvement of Education particularly as it relates to both women, and children; as well as: improvement of the state of health, capacity building and institutional development; The Project is in alignment with such themes and objectives..
Project impact in terms of types of services provided, new concepts advocated and information dissemination:
The impact the Project has had on Indonesians is beyond measures and statistical quantification. judged from perspectives such as increased access to food security, and individual incomes; positive change of mentality as individuals and nationally; as there is a built-in belief that they are in control of their lives, environment and personal destiny.
Targeting relevant beneficiaries and facility of their access to project’s benefits and services:
Indeed appropriate beneficiaries are targeted in Indonesia, particularly malnutrition, poverty, diseases, capacity building, and bringing about total transformation in the lives of children, men and women of all walks of life..
Project transferability or adaptability to other areas/ countries:
The Project is transferable from village to village in Indonesia, as experience has shown beyond doubt, and continues to transfer to so many other villages, districts, provinces and nation-wide. The approach used is viable for transfer to other developing countries, so much in need of such Projects, if the necessary determination and funding can be secured..
Efficiency of financial management and resource utilization: Given the success the Project has had since its inception and the transformation it has brought to the people of Indonesia is testimony to efficiency of financial management and resource utilization has been an integral part of administering the Project..
Fulfillment of project objectives:
At a given stage, the Project objectives were those of promoting food and nutrition security. Reducing food and nutrition vulnerability and exploiting local resources, indigenous traditions and knowledge. Such objectives have remained similar for a number of years. The Project objectives have been realized with impressive satisfaction. This is stamped as the flagship of the Agency for Food Security of the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture..
Sustainability of project activities, benefits and services: The Project aims at optimizing available resources in a sustainable manner; the objectives call for sustainable engagement as an integral part of the Project; the fact that it has been successful all along is evidence of its viability and sustainability. Moreover, the fact that it is currently in quest for further funding is a living testimony for its sustainability..
Environmental and social impact:
its social and environmental impact is profound. From perspectives of economic growth and development; human overall development; transformation and creating a society of new hope, life fulfillment and life being what it is for those living in the developed world. Environmentally, it is reflected in a number of ways, such as: rodent control, land resources evaluation, study of fish diseases, control of cocoa diseases, water management and increased food management, recycling of organic wastes for agricultural purposes, information and documentation of agricultural planning and sea farming development.